The blood ionogram is the determination of ionic constituents in the bloodstream. There is also the urine ionogram which is the determination of the main ions in the urine. The plasma ionogram is used to monitor the balance between acid and base. But it is an analysis that can detect certain diseases (mainly liver and kidney). It allows us to determine the level of hydration through a quantitative determination of potassium, sodium, bicarbonate and chlorine ions. It is important to know how to interpret the results of the blood ionogram. It is one of the most requested laboratory tests.
WHAT IS A BLOOD IONOGRAM?
One of the main analyses most frequently requested by doctors, the plasma ionogram represents the dosage and composition of the blood. The quantitative exploration of the main ions of the plasma compartment allows to prevent the occurrence of hydration disorders.
Sometimes, plasma determinations are combined with determinations of proteins, bicarbonates, magnesium and calcium. This test is never prescribed on its own; it is often accompanied by a urine ionogram to determine possible metabolic problems. It is an analysis that allows monitoring of the acid-base balance and the hydroelectric balance. It allows for the evaluation of the functioning of the digestive system, renal functioning, sweating and breathing.
Prescription of this analysis allows to determine the balance of positive and negative charges, water movements in the body and osmotic pressure. It is often prescribed as a check-up because of an unknown pathology. The test is often combined with a blood glucose and protidate test. For more information, visit the specialized sites or click on www.lesconseilsdupharmacien.info.
HOW IS THE BLOOD IONOGRAM DETERMINED?
To measure the plasma ionogram, a blood sample must be taken. A venous blood sample must be taken with a tourniquet left on for less than a minute. Normally, the sample should be taken from the elbow. It is possible that the collection tube contains anticoagulant. The blood collected must be centrifuged immediately to ensure that it is not unusable.
You can have the results of your tests within 24 hours after the collection. There is no requirement to take a blood ionogram. It is an examination that can be done at any time of the day, because the patient does not have to be fasting. However, if the blood ionogram is prescribed along with the blood glucose test, certain conditions must be respected. It is important to indicate any current treatments, for example, corticosteroids or others. The normal values of the blood ionogram vary according to the age of the patient and the laboratory in charge of the examination.
WHAT ARE THE NORMAL RESULTS OF A BLOOD IONOGRAM?
To ensure a balance between acid and base ions, it is necessary to perform a blood ionogram. The results are given in mmol/L or mEq/L. For an adult, the sodium value is 136 to 145. The potassium value is 3.5 to 4.9 and the chlorine value is 100 to 110.
For electrolytes, calcium should be around 90 to 100 mg/L, magnesium should be 0.75 to 1 mEq/L and bicarbonate should be 22 to 30 mEq/L. The values may vary depending on the physiological state of the person.
Pathologies can be detected by ionic disorders. You may detect hypernatremia, or increased sodium levels in the blood. You may see plasma hyperosmolarity from extra-renal water loss, hyperglycemia, or diabetes insipidus.
Plasma hypo-osmolarity may be caused by adrenal insufficiency, fluid retention due to heart failure, and others. The plasma ionogram gives values for the concentration of different ions in the blood.
WHEN SHOULD THIS ANALYSIS BE DONE?
The plasma ionogram can be essential to see how the body is functioning. It is a common biological test to detect fluid and electrolyte imbalance. Each imbalance may indicate a pathology. For example, dehydration may be indicated by an increase in sodium levels. Hypercalcemia may be a sign of menopause, hyperparathyroidism, certain cancers or vitamin D intoxication.
A drop in ion levels can be a sign of many conditions. For example, low calcium levels can be caused by vitamin D deficiency or chronic kidney failure.
In any case, be aware that the test is ordered as part of a diagnosis of disease. The blood ionogram can be a check-up for a routine examination. It is very important to detect disorders in advance and correct them quickly. If the imbalance is not significant, it is sufficient to take foods that contain it. But, if the disorders are important, it is necessary to make a quick correction to avoid serious complications.